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The interaction between binary combinations of three different elastomer classes commonly applied in impact modification of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was studied. Blends based on a homogeneous ethylene-propylene (EP) random copolymer (EP-RACO) and a heterophasic EP impact copolymer comprising ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) with different external elastomer types, one homogeneous ethylene-1-octene copolymer (EOC), and two hydrogenated styrenebutadiene-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS) with different styrene content, were prepared. The phase morphology, mobility as a function of temperature, mechanical and optical properties were studied. Special effects could be achieved for the combination of two different elastomer types. The results clearly demonstrate the possibility to achieve attractive property combinations in ternary systems consisting of a crystalline PP matrix and two different types of elastomer, EPR or EOC on the one hand and SEBS on the other hand. A combination of density matching and compatibilization effects allows reaching good low temperature impact strength together with a transparency close to matrix level when selecting a butadiene-rich SEBS type.
The procedures for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with anionic spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (ASPB) (PPy/ASPB nanocomposite) by means of in situ chemical oxidative polymerization were presented. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic analysis suggested the bonding structure of PPy/ASPB nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the morphologies of samples. The crystallographic structure, chemical nature and thermal stability of conducting polymers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Investigation of the electrical conductivity at room temperature showed that the electrical conductivity of PPy/ASPB nanocomposite was 20 S/cm, which was higher than that of PPy (3.6 S/cm).
This paper aims at highlighting the influence of different additives (carbon black and nucleating agents) on both the notched and unnotched Charpy impact properties of long glass fibre reinforced poly(ethylene terephtalate) injection mouldings. The relationship with the polymer matrix and composite microstructure modifications (variations of crystalline morphology and local fibre content) was investigated. Adding carbon black alone decreases the impact performances. This highly conductive additive actually increases the cooling rate, and therefore the fibre ‘frettage’ effect (higher internal stresses). It also acts as filler, which increases the material brittleness. The nucleating agents allow reducing the mould temperature, but their effect on the impact strength may be favourable or not depending on the processing temperatures. The addition of such additives induces perturbations of the polymer melt rheology in the mould cavity and of the cooling kinetics of the part, which both act on the fibre distribution during mould filling and on the degree of crystallinity of the composite parts.
Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.
Predominantly isotactic stereoregular polyacrylonitrile copolymers (PAC) were prepared by solid phase polymerization techniques using hexagonal crystalline metal salts as template compounds. Stereoregular distributions of the prepared polymer were studied using high resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) spectra. The extent of isotacticity was directly determined from the peak intensity of the methine carbon (CH). The triad tacticity from the intensities of methine carbon peaks were examined by statistical methods. It was found that the PAC was predominantly isotactic in stereoregularity, and its sequence distribution obeys Bernoulli statistics. The optimum polymerization conditions ensuring isotactic content over 50% were disclosed experimentally. The chemical composition of PAC was confirmed with 1H NMR data. The obtained polyacrylonitrile copolymers were also characterized for molecular parameters such as viscosity average molecular weight (Mv), number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index.
To provide ethylene-propylene random copolymer (PPR) with balanced mechanical properties, β-nucleating agent and CaCO3 nanoparticles are incorporated into PPR matrix by melt blending. It is found that crystallization rate and relative content of β-crystal increase with the addition of β-nucleating agent together with nanoparticles. Size of PPR spherulite is greatly reduced, and a specific morphology appears, in which α-crystal lamella is grown upon the β-nucleus. The results suggest that both β-nucleating agent and nano-CaCO3 have heterogeneous nucleation and synergistic effects on β-nucleation of PPR. Mechanical characterization shows that mechanical properties of PPR can be tuned by incorporation of β-nucleating agent and nano-CaCO3 particles. Under suitable compositions, low temperature impact strength and high temperature creep resistance of PPR, the bottlenecks of application of such material, can be simultaneously improved without sacrificing the Youngs’modulus and tensile strength.
This work focused on the mechanical behavior, especially creep resistance, of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) filled with ozone-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was found that the ozone functionalization of MWCNTs could improve their dispersion and interfacial adhesion to the TPU matrix as proved by scanning electron microscope and Raman spectrometer. It finally contributed to the enhancement of Young’s modulus and yield strength of TPU/MWCNT composites. Moreover, the creep resistance and recovery of MWCNT/TPU composites revealed a significant improvement by incorporating ozone functionalized MWCNTs. The strong interaction between the modified MWCNTs and TPU matrix would enhance the interfacial bonding and facilitate the load transfer, resulting in low creep strain and unrecovered strain.
This paper presents the synthesis, physicochemical properties and modifications of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymers. It describes the new 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydrogels in the form of microbeads of different degrees of crosslinking (2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20% mol). As crosslinking monomers bis[4(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl]-sulfide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used. The new hydrogels were obtained by two alternative methods in a suspension copolymerisation procedure. The copolymers were modified with diethylenetriamine in an epoxide opening reaction. Thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis) and swelling characteristic in typical solvents of the obtained functional hydrogels were examined. The chemical structure of the copolymers before and after modification was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Moreover, their sorptive properties in removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions were also presented. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models are used to describe the adsorption characteristics of the selected modified hydrogels.